Turkmenistan – ترکمنستان 

Turkmenistan is strategic neighbor of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and both countries enjoy cultural, religious, historical and geographical similarities. Below you can find general information about her.

General Information About Turkmenistan: On October 27, 1991, Turkmenistan became independent state, and since then this date is marked as the Independence Day.On December 12, 1995, Turkmenistan was recognized as a permanently neutral state by the resolution of the UN General Assembly with the unanimous support of all 185 member states (at that time).

Turkmenistan is a democratic, legal, secular state. The form of government is a presidential republic. The political structure of the Turkmen state is formed in accordance with the Constitution of Turkmenistan, adopted on May 18, 1992 (the new version on September 26, 2008).

The Сonstitution of Turkmenistan is the Basic law of the state. According to that law, Turkmenistan’s state mechanism is based on the principle of separation of powers into legislative, executive and judicial branches which act independently and balance each other. Constitutionally fixed norms and provisions have direct force. Laws and other legal acts that contradict the Constitution have no legal force.

People are the holder of sovereignty and the only source of power of Turkmenistan. The state guarantees the freedom of religions and confessions and their equality before the law. Religious organizations are apart from the state and can’t interfere with the state affairs and execute state functions. The state education system is formed separately from the religious organizations and has a secular nature.

The President of Turkmenistan is the highest official of Turkmenistan. He is at the head of the state and executive power. The President of Turkmenistan chairs the Cabinet of Ministers – the Government of Turkmenistan. The President of Turkmenistan is the guarantor of the state independence and neutral status of Turkmenistan, its territorial integrity, the observance of the Constitution and the performance of international obligations. The President of Turkmenistan is the Supreme Commander in Chief of Turkmenistan.

Legislative power is exercised by the supreme representative body – the Mejlis (Parliament) of Turkmenistan, which consists of 125 deputies, elected in accordance with the territorial election districts for the term of 5 years. The elections of the deputies of the Mejlis are carried out by the citizens of Turkmenistan on the basis of nationwide, equal and direct electoral law with secret voting and on alternative bases.

Judicial power in Turkmenistan belongs to the courts. Judicial power is meant to defend the rights and freedoms of citizens, state and public interests which are protected by the law.

The territory of Turkmenistan is equal to 491, 21 thousand km2. Its territory extends for 1100 km from the west to the east and extends for 650 km from north to south.

The population of Turkmenistan is more than 6.2 million people. Turkmenistan is a multinational state. There are more than 100 nations and ethnic groups living in the country.

STATE LANGUAGE: The Turkmen language is the state language. All citizens of Turkmenistan are granted the right to use the native language. The educational institutions of Turkmenistan ensure learning of three languages – Turkmen, English and Russian.

CURRENCY: National currency is manat, introduced into circulation on November 1, 1993. At present time the ratio of the national currency against the freely convertible currency amounts to: 3,50 manats = 1 US dollar.

ADMINISTRATIVE TERRITORIAL STRUCTURE: Capital city of Turkmenistan – Ashgabat, which is the administrative-territorial unit possessing the right of the province (velayat). Ashgabat includes 7 districts (etraps):Bagtiyarlyk district, Berkararlik district, Kopetdag district, Chandybil district, Archabil district,Abadan district and Rukhaba district. The total area makes up 47 thousand 26 hectares.

Turkmenistan is divided into 5 provinces – Ahal, Balkan, Dashoguz, Lebap and Mary. Each province is divided into districts. There are 52 districts in Turkmenistan, 25 cities, including 15 cities with the right of district, 78 villages and 560 rural councils (rural municipal units) and 1927 rural settlements.


The major state and national holidays of the state:

New Year – January 1,
the Day of the State Flag of Turkmenistan – February 19,
International Women’s Day – March 8,
National Spring Holiday – March 21-22,
Victory Day – May 9,
the Day of the Constitution and the Day of Revival, Unity and Poetry of Magtymguly – May 18,
Turkmenistan’s Independence Day – October 27-28,
National Holiday of Turkmenistan – the Day of Neutrality – December 12.
The certain dates of annually marked holidays Eid al-Adha and Eid al-Fitr are fixed in accordance with the decrees of the President of Turkmenistan.

Memorial days:

National Commemoration Day – October 6.

Currently, the activities of the Ministry of Culture of Turkmenistan are aimed at the achievement of goals in accordance with the State Program for the development of cultural sphere in Turkmenistan for 2012-2016, which has a conceptual meaning for the formation of favorable cultural environment, which, in turn, will help to reveal the cultural and spiritual potential of every person, people and the country as a whole. The state cultural policy will be implemented through popularization activities, various activities of international level. In 2012 a whole range of remarkable events took place in public life of Turkmenistan. There were cultural activities on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the establishment of the diplomatic relations of Turkmenistan with the People’s Republic of China, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of Korea, Ukraine, Belarus, the Republic of Azerbaijan.

The Days of Culture of Islamic Republic of Iran, Belarus, Tatarstan, Turkey in Turkmenistan were held during this period. Days of Turkmen Culture were successfully held in Vienna, the capital of Austria and in Astrakhan, Russian Federation. These are only few remarkable events. Days of Turkmen Cinema took place in Uzbekistan. In the framework of the cultural events the city of Mary was announced as the cultural capital of the Commonwealth of Independent States in 2012. On this occasion, the scientific conference “Ancient Merv is a Center of the World Civilization” and the concert of popular singers from the Common wealth states were organized. Among recent events, the concert of the culture and art masters of Turkmenistan in Izmir city during the working visit of the President of Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov to the Turkish Republic is worth noting.

Consistent work is being conducted to enlarge the spectrum, improve the quality of the cultural services, widen the coverage over the population, renew the repertoire of the creative collectives, recover museum and library funds and coordinate the activities of the cultural institutions. As of today, there are 11 state theaters, 31 state museums. There are 667 houses of culture in the provinces. Their activities are renewed with new forms and methods. In particular, special groups were created to render assistance in organizational matters. These groups are designed to ensure the effective work of these institutions andraise professional level of the personnel. This is especially topical on the regional level. These groups visit regions and analyze the work in the cultural sphere. They arrange seminars, give consultations and provide assistance. Pointing to the certain dynamics of cultural processes in the country and a range of key issues that touch goals and priorities of the state policy in culture, modern image of the country in the world arena directly depends on its contribution to common culture.

There were the presidency of Turkmenistan in the Commonwealth of Independent States and cultural events related to that. In October 2012 Ashgabat hosted VII conference of creative and scientific workers of CIS member states. In this respect, the National Leader instructed to get ready on the highest level for this important international measure. There was a special program of the conference and other activities.

The state attaches much attention to the development of cultural sphere. Numerous cultural institutions are under construction in the country – theatres, cinema and concert centers, museums, culture houses, libraries and other social and cultural facilities. A lot of funds are allocated to scientific-research and archeological works. Particular attention is paid to professional training and the advancement of culture workers.

Tourism: The major area of the social policy is the development of tourism. This is one of the most important issues for our country. In this context, State Committee for Tourism of Turkmenistan was established in 2012. There is also the Committee for the Avaza National Tourist Zone within this newly established committee. The priority objective of the State Committee for Tourism is the development of international tourism as the most profitable area of the tourism industry. New tourist routes will be openedin order to attract more foreign tourists. The quality of services is being improved. Special attention is attached to the training of highly qualified personnel in this area and the improvement of the work, the arrangement of the effective advertising activity as well as the training of highly qualified staff for the effective management of hotel complexes in the Avaza National Tourist Zone. Necessary works will be conducted for the arrangement of the management of hotels in Turkmenistan in compliance with the highest international standards.

Necessary steps will be taken in order to include amazing sites of Koytendag in the list of the UNESCO’s world legacy. Other natural sites are planned to be included in the list as well. It is planned to conduct special tender to decorate and develop the picturesque sites of Koytendag in order to create favorable conditions for tourists, including hotels and other systems of life supply. Necessary tourist activities are being conducted for the further growth of the tourist industry of the country and bring it into compliance with the modern requirements.

Awaza National Tourist Zone: In June 2009, the opening ceremony of the first facilities of the Avaza National Tourist Zone took place on the Caspian coast. The “Avaza” project initiated by President of Turkmenistan occupies a special place in the strategic plans of the country over the next decade and, therefore, is dedicated to accumulate all of the most advanced achievements of world architecture, engineering, technical design and creative ideas. Currently, the cost of constructed facilities here is more than 1.5 billion dollars.

Within the second stage of construction, another 10-15 resorts, world-class hotels will be commissioned. Particular attention will be paid to the creation of a full-scale recreation and entertainment complex – the construction of a water park, yacht and sports clubs, restaurants, campgrounds, all sorts of attractions, shopping centers. Today navigable river runs 7 kilometers through the whole territory of the resort. On both sides of the hydraulic structure landscaped recreation area will be extended, sports and canoeing, sailing regattas will take place there.

Today, a new airport in the city of Turkmenbashi is commissioned; active works are being implemented on the construction of the highways to Avaza, on the construction of a powerful gas turbine power plant, desalination plant, sewage treatment plants and water supply network system. Seaport will be fully modernized: national fleet will have ships for sea cruises, yachts and other vessels. Turkmenbashi city will become one of the largest transportation centers on the railway transport corridor “North-South,” which is designed as the shortest route to tie the states of Europe and South Asia.

The boundaries of the tourist zone have been expanded; its area has increased to five thousand acres.In the third phase of the project there will be a kind of Turkmen “Las Vegas” with numerous casinos and other entertainment centers.

New life will come to the city of Turkmenbashi. Old city will be moved to a new location. The construction of a new city with modern apartment houses and necessary infrastructure will begin nearby.

Social sphere: Transition to market relations in Turkmenistan is being carried out in the framework of the state policy that ensures the population’s social security. The country’s policy of radical social changes is aimed at the provision of the high living standard of the population. “The State is for People!” is the main slogan and the basic doctrine of the ongoing reforms in Turkmenistan. Currently, hundreds of modern hospitals, clinics, higher educational institutions, schools, kindergartens, sport facilities are under construction. They are equipped with the latest technologies. The citizens of Turkmenistan have free access to modern medical services and education. Turkmenistan will have the bright future.

The state supplies the population with free of charge electricity, natural gas, water and salt. Since 2008, the citizens of Turkmenistan have used limited free motor fuel depending on the type of the motor vehicle. Insignificant prices are fixed for bread, for the travel by the public transport, as well as by motor vehicles, railways and airlines inside country. More than 70% of the state budget of Turkmenistan is annually allocated for social needs. Turkmenistan annually increases salary, pension, public welfare payments and student stipend by 10%. All people of the country use gas, water, salt, electricity free of charge. This benefit will be valid until 2030. The state adjusted minimal sizes of residential, communal and transport services as per the world standards for the population of Turkmenistan. In accordance with the Code of Turkmenistan “On Social Security,” which came into force on July 1, 2007, the state expanded a number of public welfare payments and social aid given to disabled people. Disability benefits have been increased. There is state welfare payment at a birth of a baby – for taking care till the age of 1.5 years old. There is also welfare payment in case if the breadwinner is lost. The right for the assignment of the breadwinner is also provided.

Economy: The economic growth of Turkmenistan is carried out on the basis of the national and state programs for short and long term periods.

Today, Turkmenistan has the diversified, multifunctional economy presented by enterprises of power industry, oil and gas production, oil-processing, chemical and petrochemical field, mechanical engineering and metal-processing, objects for producing building materials, light and food industry.The growth rate of Turkmenistan’s GDP made up 10,2% in the year 2013 as compared to 2012. The growth volume of industrial production accounted for 7,3%. In comparison with the previous period the growth rate of investments equaled to 7,1%, the size of wages amounted to 11%. At present, in the country, under the leadership of President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov, grandiouse reformus are under way in the framework of the national and state programs, which are aimed at the diversification of the national economy and at the achievement of innovative character.

In this context, traditional sectors have considerably grown over the recent years: oil and gas complex, power engineering, agriculture, construction, transport and communications. At the same time, a lot of work is being carried out for the formation of new sectors of the economy: chemical, textile and building materials industries, telecommunications and other high-tech spheres. Special programs have been worked out such as the “National program for socio-economic development of the country for 2012-2016.” They are targeted at the further enhancement of the above named branches for medium-term prospect. Turkmenistan actively develops its foreign economic relations with other countries. Today Turkmenistan has established trade relations with 103 countries of the world. Presently, Turkmenistan has trade relations with 103 states. In 2012, the growth of the foreign trade turnover accounted for 102%. The total volume of hydrocarbon resources amount to 45.44 billion tons of oil equivalent. In 2012 Turkmenistan produced more than 69 billion cubic meters of natural gas and 11 million tons of oil. The Program on the development of oil and gas complex of Turkmenistan stipulates the increase of gas production up to 250 billion cubic meters, and oil – 110 million tons by the year 2030.

Possessing by more than 24 trillion cubic meters proven reserves of natural gas, as well as taking into account the peculiarities of the geographical location, Turkmenistan implements the policy of diversification of its international cooperation, particularly in the energy sector, on the basis of an equal partner access to the sources of Turkmen hydrocarbons and their means of delivery. This involves the creation of multivariate transportation pipeline infrastructure on the conclusion of Turkmen energy resources to international energy markets.

Following this, the country along with the traditional routes, in 2009, implemented two new major projects of exporting its energy resources to the world market: the gas pipeline China-Turkmenistan and the second gas pipeline Turkmenistan-Iran.The country together with its partners launched its gas pipeline on the route of Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India.

Turkmenistan is highly interested in the projects on export of its energy to the European direction.

Along with the geographical diversification, the structural diversification of the energy sector of Turkmenistan is being gradually implemented through the creation of new, primarily, process industries, based on hydrocarbon raw material.

Turkmenistan believes that the joint implementation of international transport projects in Central Asia and the Caspian basin are also important, taking into account the unique geographical location in the region.

The power system of Turkmenistan is associated with the combined power system of Central Asia and is capable of exporting large amounts of electricity to Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, Tajikistan and other countries in the region. The potential of the energy industry in the country is constantly increasing: the construction of new power plants and power lines, the reconstruction and modernization of existing power facilities. In accordance with the Presidential Decree as of February 25, 2011,theconstruction of high voltage overhead power lines and substation complex began in Lebap and Mary provinces, as well as the reconstruction of existing substations and spare parts for power plants. Upon the completion of these works, Turkmenistan will be able to increase the export of electricity to Afghanistan five times. The capacity will also allow exporting electricity to Pakistan and Tajikistan. Turkmenistan has great opportunities for the development of different sectors of chemical and petrochemical industries, including the use of resources of already developed fields and industrial development of new deposits of chemical raw stock.

In 2009, the construction of ore-dressing and processing complex were launched on the outskirts of Garlyk settlement in Lebap province, where a range of deposits of potassium saltswere opened in the ore-mining region Gaurdak-Koytendag. The construction of a mining complex on the production of potash fertilizers, per se, symbolizes the birth of new mining branch for the Turkmen economy, based on the vast resource base. Thus, Garlyk deposit of potassium salts is capable to produce fertilizers in the volume of 1-1.5 million tons annually and in the future that figure will reach up to 4 millions. The cost of the first stage of the complex is about 1 billion USD.

Turkmenistan attaches great importance to the development of transport and communication system (railways and roads, sea and river ports, pipelines) as an essential part of infrastructure for the sustainable development of the country’s economy. Large-scale international projects in the transport sector initiated by President GurbangulyBerdimuhamedov are aimed to give a significant boost to regional and interregional economic cooperation. In this context, the construction of the railway Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan-Iran is relevant and economically viable. In 2010, there was the detailed consideration of the Turkmen initiative on the creation of the transport corridor from Central Asia to the countries of the Persian Gulf. The ceremony of the commissioning of the Turkmenistan-Kazakhstan part of the railway Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan-Iran took place on May, 2013.

At present, the length of railways in Turkmenistan is 3,080 miles. Over the years of independence, it has increased by 900 kilometers. New railway lines have been constructed: Tejen-Sarahs, Turkmenabat-Atamurat, Dashoguz-Urgench, Ashgabat-Karakum-Dashoguz. Powerful economic potential leads to an annual increase in the volume of cargo transportation. In 2011 the volume of cargo transportation made up 104% as compared to the previous year. Turkmenistan is one of the largest international transit centers of railway transportation by the lines of “North-South,” “West-East.” Radio relays lines and Trans-Asian-European fiber-optic communication line between Shanghai and Frankfurt were constructed; its length in the territory of Turkmenistan makes about 1400 kilometers. All settlements of Turkmenistan are provided with a stable connection.

The main objectives of the country’s agricultural sector is to meet food demands of population, provide processing industry with raw materials, increase production efficiency, form new economic relations and consistently strengthen food security.

Today Turkmenistan is fully self-sufficient in basic foodstuffs. In 2011 Turkmenistan became one of the grain exporting countries. 217,000 tons are set for sale, including 150 tons of wheat, and the rest – in the form of flour.

During the years of independence export-oriented textile industry with modern high-tech equipment was created in Turkmenistan, 60 textile complexes and enterprises with the most advanced and efficient equipment were built and commissioned into operation. This enabled to increase the refining capacity of cotton produced in the country from 3 to 55 percent. Between 1995 and 2010, the production of cotton yarn and cotton fabrics increased by 8 times. During the same period the export of textile products with a label “Made in Turkmenistan” increased by 29 times. Currently, about 80 percent of manufactured textile products are exported to the European Union, the USA, Canada, Russia, Turkey, Hungary, China, the Baltics, Ukraine and other countries.

The annual volume of products and industry output reached an average of $300 million dollars.

The investment activity of the economy has led to the rapid growth of the construction industry of Turkmenistan. In addition to large-scale public construction projects, industrial, recreational, cultural facilities, such as the creation of the Avaza National Tourist Zone,the large-scale construction of dwelling houses are being carried out within the National program for the reform of social and living conditions in villages, towns, cities, districts and etrap centers for the period up to 2020. Its main task is to create a high standard of living of the rural population, similar to urban, ensure balanced social development in all settlements of the country. Residential mortgage with the most favorable terms is extensively developed.

Education: In Turkmenistan large-scale work is under way in order to modernize the national educational system and develop science in the higher educational institutions, bring them to the level of the developed states. The “Law on Education” was adopted in the framework of the large scale support given by the state. The intensive construction of new children’s preschool institutions, secondary schools and higher educational institutions is being carried out throughout the country. The latest information and communication technologies have been introduced into the educational system in order to raise the quality and effectiveness of teaching process. Schools and universities have been equipped with modern computers and multimedia means of teaching.

At present time, there are 1741 schools, 848 preschool institutions, 23 higher educational institutions, 127 schools of professional education and 27 technical schools and secondary professional schools. In accordance with the “National program of the President of Turkmenistan on the transformation of social and living conditions of the population in villages, towns, districts and district centers for the period up to 2010” the number of the preschool institutions of the country will amount to 428.The number of the secondary schools will increase up to 328.

Science: The radical reform of science is being carried out under the direct leadership of the President of Turkmenistan. The Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan has been restored. There is the Fund of science and technology under the Supreme Council for Science and Technology. The newly adopted “State Program on the Development of Scientific Sphere in Turkmenistan for 2012-2016,” councils on dissertations, the provision of the laboratories of the academic institutes with modern equipment, special hardware help to conduct a range of scientific researches in various areas, including physics, chemistry and biotechnology. All this promotes the enhancement of the scientific-technical potential of the country.

The creation of the Technical Park in the Turkmen capital is also worth noting. This is a special complex that combines scientific-research institutions, educational institutions and other facilities. There are new documents that provide the reinforcement of the material and technical base of scientific-research institutes inside the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan. Newextrabenefits have been giventothewageforscientifictitlesanddegrees. Turkmenscientists work in all majorareas. They modernize the organizational-economic structure of the agro-industrial complex. They are engaged in the introduction of scientifically grounded methods in crop rotation and work on the creation of the developed agricultural industry, in order to raise profitable sorts of cotton and wheat and other crops. The gene-fund of plants is enriched. An ecological map is under development. This leads to the rational use of the resources of the “AltynAsyr” Turkmen lake in the Garagum desert.

Sport: Sport is a part of the social policy of Turkmenistan. In this light, new sport facilities are being constructed in Ashgabat and regional centers. They are equipped with all necessary equipment for practicing various kinds of sport. There will be a new building of the School of higher sport mastery of Turkmenistan. Sport schools of heavy athletics will be built in Dashoguz, Mary and Balkan regions in compliance with the highest requirements. It is planned to build a modern specialized school of chess and drafts. Regional centers and Ashgabat city will have sport facilities meant for various competitions in running and cycling. In order to raise the qualification of coaches, it is necessary to arrange their training at the foreign sport schools. In order to work and prepare the national team of the country for the competitions, it is necessary to invite experienced coaches and conclude contracts with them. In this connection, the National Leader instructed to work out the Regulations.

According to that document, qualified trainers and sportsmen will get an opportunity to practice sport on a contractual base. In order to widely attract young people to sport and promote the interest of supporters, it is necessary to apply the latest and cutting edge methods and technologies, new developments in science and techniques and arrangeexciting competitions. International competitions in new kinds of sport are to be held regularly. They stimulate the interest of young people in hockey, figure skating, rowing, cycling and horse-riding.

One of the main tasks set before the State Sport Committee is to develop mass health movement and Olympic movement, propagate and introduce healthy way of life, attract citizens to practice sport and active recreation. In this connection,the Head of State said that it was important to make effective use of the new sport objects equipped with latest technology and sport equipment. According to the President of Turkmenistan, special attention must be paid to the preparations of the V Asian Indoor games and martial arts tournament to be held in 2017. We must make certain that Turkmen sportsmen get prizesand winning places in competition and other international tournaments. It is remarkable that Ashgabat city became the first city in Central Asia which got the right to host these prestigious games. As known, on November 5, the foundation of the Olympic city was laid in Ashgabat. This multipurpose complex includes 30 facilities. They includea paralympic complex and rehabilitation center. The President of Turkmenistan GurbangulyBerdimuhamedov said that about 2 billion US dollars would be allocated for the implementation of the first stage of the project. As of the Asian games, its program will include competitions in heavy athletics, running, basketball, volleyball, handball, mini-football, classical wrestling, judo, taekwondo, national wrestling “goresh,” tennis, table tennis, gymnastics, cycling and etc. Additionally, according to the decision of the Olympic council of Asia in the Asian Indoor games, there will be sport competitions in the types of sport not enlisted in the program of the Olympic Games. There will be competitions in cybersports, extreme sports, aerobics, field and track events, sport dances, football in a closed hall, hockey, swimming, bill-yards, bowling, chess and some others.

Healthcare: Turkmenistan has reformed and developed the field of national healthcare, giving it a status of the multipurpose system of social protection.

An important part of public health policy is to consistently implement a strategy to reduce the morbidity of the population. Turkmenistan ranks first in carrying out immunization activities, occupying a leading position in the region in terms of availability of vaccines and immunization. In Turkmenistan, the vaccination is free. Hib-vaccination started on January 1, 2010, which is also one of the most important preventive measures for the population.

The Program “Saglyk” (“Health”) is being implemented step by step through a strategy lowering morbidity. Turkmenistan, wholly or partly got rid of many kinds of diseases. Therefore, in 2000 the country was awarded the certificate of the WHO for the eradication of dracunculiasis.In 2002, Turkmenistan was granted a certificate forthe cessation of circulation of wild poliovirus on its territory, which indicatesthe total eradication of polio. Turkmenistan is the first among the CIS and Central Asian countries and fourth in the world for universal salt iodization in accordance with accepted international standards; and, therefore, it was recognized as the country where one of the pressing problems of mankind – iodine deficiency, as mentioned in the certificate of the WHO in 2004, was eliminated. In order to prevent diseases associated with a lack of iron in human body, Turkmenistan, in close cooperation with foreign partners, implemented a number of major projects for the enrichment of food products, particularly flour and salt.

A part of the health care system is to built a state policy in the realization of policy goals for maternal and child health. The widespread establishment of health centers “Maternity and Childhood” (“EneMahri”), the successful implementation of national programs on breastfeeding and anemia control were highly appreciated by the major international organizations. These measures enabled to decrease twice the infant mortality for the period 1990-2010 and managed to decrease the maternal mortality 10 times.

Intensive work on fighting with diseases such as malaria, measles and rubella is being conducted in the country. The country finishes the process of the complete elimination of malaria. The country has the lowest ever record in tuberculosis.

In October 2010 Turkmenistan was recognized as a malaria free country. This event was officially confirmed by the special certificate of the World Health Organization.

The result of the successful international partnership for prevention and prevention of HIV infection is the fact that Turkmenistan is among the few countries where HIV infection and AIDS have not been spread.

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